ADAM10 as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review

Revue neurologique

Rev Neurol (Paris). 2023 Jul 15:S0035-3787(23)00969-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2023.04.002. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is the main α-secretase in the non-amyloidogenic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), avoiding the production of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

OBJECTIVE: To investigate ADAM10 from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma/serum as a potential biomarker for AD.

METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus databases using the terms and Boolean operators: "Alzheimer" AND "ADAM10" AND "biomarker". Citation searching was also adopted. The inclusion criteria were original studies of ADAM10 in blood or CSF in patients with AD. The risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. The analysis methods were registered in the PROSPERO database (#CRD42021274239).

RESULTS: Of the 97 records screened, 17 were included. There is strong evidence for lower levels of ADAM10 in platelets of persons with AD compared to cognitively healthy participants. On the other hand, higher levels of ADAM10 were found in plasma. Regarding CSF, controversial results were found with lower and higher levels of ADAM10 in persons with AD compared to healthy older adults. The differences may be due to diverse reasons, including different sample collection and processing and different antibodies, highlighting the importance of standardizing the experiments and choosing the appropriate antibodies for ADAM10 detection.

CONCLUSION: Evidence shows that ADAM10 levels are altered in platelets, plasma, serum, and CSF of individuals with AD. The alteration was evident in all stages of the disease, and therefore, the protein may represent a complementary biomarker for the disease. However, more studies must be performed to establish cut-off values for ADAM10 levels to discriminate AD participants from cognitively unimpaired older adults.

PMID:37460331 | DOI:10.1016/j.neurol.2023.04.002