Associations between Cardiovascular Signal Entropy and Cognitive Performance over Eight Years
Entropy (Basel). 2021 Oct 14;23(10):1337. doi: 10.3390/e23101337.
In this study, the relationship between non-invasively measured cardiovascular signal entropy and global cognitive performance was explored in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), both cross-sectionally at baseline (n = 4525; mean (SD) age: 61.9 (8.4) years; 54.1% female) and longitudinally. We hypothesised that signal disorder in the cardiovascular system, as quantified by short-length signal entropy during rest, could provide a marker for cognitive function. Global cognitive function was assessed via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) across five longitudinal waves (8 year period; n = 4316; mean (SD) age: 61.9 (8.4) years; 54.4% female) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) across two longitudinal waves (4 year period; n = 3600; mean (SD) age: 61.7 (8.2) years; 54.1% female). Blood pressure (BP) was continuously monitored during supine rest at baseline, and sample entropy values were calculated for one-minute and five-minute sections of this data, both for time-series data interpolated at 5 Hz and beat-to-beat data. Results revealed significant associations between BP signal entropy and cognitive performance, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results also suggested that as regards associations with cognitive performance, the entropy analysis approach used herein potentially outperformed more traditional cardiovascular measures such as resting heart rate and heart rate variability. The quantification of entropy in short-length BP signals could provide a clinically useful marker of the cardiovascular dysregulations that potentially underlie cognitive decline.