Development, Insults and Predisposing Factors of the Brain's Predictive Coding System to Chronic Perceptual Disorders-A Life-Course Examination
Brain Sci. 2024 Jan 16;14(1):86. doi: 10.3390/brainsci14010086.
The predictive coding theory is currently widely accepted as the theoretical basis of perception and chronic perceptual disorders are explained as the maladaptive compensation of the brain to a prediction error. Although this gives us a general framework to work with, it is still not clear who may be more susceptible and/or vulnerable to aberrations in this system. In this paper, we study changes in predictive coding through the lens of tinnitus and pain. We take a step back to understand how the predictive coding system develops from infancy, what are the different neural and bio markers that characterise this system in the acute, transition and chronic phases and what may be the factors that pose a risk to the aberration of this system. Through this paper, we aim to identify people who may be at a higher risk of developing chronic perceptual disorders as a reflection of aberrant predictive coding, thereby giving future studies more facets to incorporate in their investigation of early markers of tinnitus, pain and other disorders of predictive coding. We therefore view this paper to encourage the thinking behind the development of preclinical biomarkers to maladaptive predictive coding.