Diet Patterns, the Gut Microbiome, and Alzheimer's Disease

Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

J Alzheimers Dis. 2022 May 23. doi: 10.3233/JAD-220205. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Given the complex bidirectional communication system that exists between the gut microbiome and the brain, there is growing interest in the gut microbiome as a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of AD by initiating and prolonging neuroinflammatory processes. The metabolites of gut microbiota appear to be critical in the mechanism of the gut-brain axis. Gut microbiota metabolites, such as trimethylamine-n-oxide, lipopolysaccharide, and short chain fatty acids, are suggested to mediate systemic inflammation and intracerebral amyloidosis via endothelial dysfunction. Emerging data suggest that the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) may also influence AD pathology. Importantly, 60% of variation in the gut microbiome is attributable to diet, therefore modulating the gut microbiome through dietary means could be an effective approach to reduce AD risk. Given that people do not eat isolated nutrients and instead consume a diverse range of foods and combinations of nutrients that are likely to be interactive, studying the effects of whole diets provides the opportunity to account for the interactions between different nutrients. Thus, dietary patterns may be more predictive of real-life effect on gut microbiome and AD risk than foods or nutrients in isolation. Accumulating evidence from experimental and animal studies also show potential effects of gut microbiome on AD pathogenesis. However, data from human dietary interventions are lacking. Well-designed intervention studies are needed in diverse populations to determine the influence of diet on gut microbiome and inform the development of effective dietary strategies for prevention of AD.

PMID:35634849 | DOI:10.3233/JAD-220205

Authors

Andrea McGrattan
Christopher J Stewart
Aedín Cassidy
Jayne V Woodside
Claire T McEvoy