Influence of Physiological Variables and Comorbidities on Plasma Aβ40, Aβ42, and p-tau181 Levels in Cognitively Unimpaired Individuals

International journal of molecular sciences

Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Jan 25;25(3):1481. doi: 10.3390/ijms25031481.


Plasma biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a promising tool that may help in early diagnosis. However, their levels may be influenced by physiological parameters and comorbidities that should be considered before they can be used at the population level. For this purpose, we assessed the influences of different comorbidities on AD plasma markers in 208 cognitively unimpaired subjects. We analyzed both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aβ40, Aβ42, and p-tau181 using the fully automated Lumipulse platform. The relationships between the different plasma markers and physiological variables were studied using linear regression models. The mean differences in plasma markers according to comorbidity groups were also studied. The glomerular filtration rate showed an influence on plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels but not on the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. The amyloid ratio was significantly lower in diabetic and hypertensive subjects, and the mean p-tau181 levels were higher in hypertensive subjects. The glomerular filtration rate may have an inverse relationship on plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels but not on the amyloid ratio, suggesting that the latter is a more stable marker to use in the general population. Cardiovascular risk factors might have a long-term effect on the amyloid ratio and plasma levels of p-tau181.

PMID:38338759 | PMC:PMC10855058 | DOI:10.3390/ijms25031481