Management of Psychiatric Symptoms in Dementia
Neurol Clin. 2023 Feb;41(1):123-139. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2022.05.001. Epub 2022 Oct 18.
Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent, may start early in the disease and increase in frequency and severity over time. BPSD may be associated with medical, social, emotional, and environmental factors and potential triggers should be eliminated. Each BPSD has a unique anatomic and neurochemical profile that may help in making a diagnosis and choosing a therapy. Structured management plans help create an effective framework. Treatment options are understudied and the evidence is inconclusive for many of the pharmacological interventions. Effective nonpharmacological options should be utilized where available. Treatments should be monitored for their efficacy and safety.