Prevention and treatment of stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease: an overview of evidence and current guidelines.
Chronic kidney disease is strongly associated with an increased risk of stroke, small vessel disease, and vascular dementia. Common vascular factors for stroke, such as hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation, are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease, accounting for this association. However, factors unique to these patients, such as uremia, oxidative stress, and mineral and bone abnormalities, as well as dialysis-related factors are also believed to contribute to risk. Despite improvements in stroke treatment and survival in the general population, the rate of improvement in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially those who are dialysis dependent, has lagged behind. There is a lack of or conflicting evidence that those with renal disease, particularly when advanced or older, consistently derive benefit from currently available preventive and therapeutic interventions for stroke in the general population. In this review, we explore the complexities and challenges of these interventions in the population with renal disease.