Global and Regional Structural Differences and Prediction of Autistic Traits during Adolescence

Brain sciences

Brain Sci. 2022 Sep 2;12(9):1187. doi: 10.3390/brainsci12091187.

ABSTRACT

Autistic traits are commonly viewed as dimensional in nature, and as continuously distributed in the general population. In this respect, the identification of predictive values of markers such as subtle autism-related alterations in brain morphology for parameter values of autistic traits could increase our understanding of this dimensional occasion. However, currently, very little is known about how these traits correspond to alterations in brain morphology in typically developing individuals, particularly during a time period where changes due to brain development processes do not provide a bias. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed brain volume, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) in a cohort of 14-15-year-old adolescents (N = 285, female: N = 162) and tested their predictive value for autistic traits, assessed with the social responsiveness scale (SRS) two years later at the age of 16-17 years, using a regression-based approach. We found that autistic traits were significantly predicted by volumetric changes in the amygdala (r = 0.181), cerebellum (r = 0.128) and hippocampus (r = -0.181, r = -0.203), both in boys and girls. Moreover, the CT of the superior frontal region was negatively correlated (r = -0.144) with SRS scores. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the SRS total score and smaller left putamen volume, specifically in boys (r = -0.217), but not in girls. Our findings suggest that neural correlates of autistic traits also seem to lie on a continuum in the general population, are determined by limbic-striatal neuroanatomical brain areas, and are partly dependent on sex. As we imaged adolescents from a large population-based cohort within a small age range, these data may help to increase the understanding of autistic-like occasions in otherwise typically developing individuals.

PMID:36138923 | PMC:PMC9496772 | DOI:10.3390/brainsci12091187

Authors

Frauke Nees
Tobias Banaschewski
Arun L W Bokde
Sylvane Desrivières
Antoine Grigis
Hugh Garavan
Penny Gowland
Yvonne Grimmer
Andreas Heinz
Rüdiger Brühl
Corinna Isensee
Andreas Becker
Jean-Luc Martinot
Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot
Eric Artiges
Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos
Hervé Lemaître
Argyris Stringaris
Betteke van Noort
Tomáš Paus
Jani Penttilä
Sabina Millenet
Juliane H Fröhner
Michael N Smolka
Henrik Walter
Robert Whelan
Gunter Schumann
Luise Poustka
None On Behalf Of The Imagen Consortium